In the present section operations on engine repair, including details of a head of the block of cylinders and the block of cylinders are considered. The recommendations concerning as the organisation and preparation of works on repair of the engine, purchase of spare parts, and an operations procedure are included in section at removal and installation of details of the engine, and also methods of check of a technical condition of details.
The repair work, which carrying out it is possible without removal of the power unit from the car
Without removal of the engine from the car it is possible to execute set of repair operations. Before the beginning of any works it is desirable to wash out a motor compartment and the engine a water stream. To work with the pure engine it is easier; besides, pollution of internal elements of the engine is prevented.
To expand working space and not to damage a paint and varnish covering of a body, remove a cowl and mudguards.
If there are traces of a leak of oil or the cooling liquid, replacements of linings specifying in necessity all works, as a rule, are spent without engine removal. Without removal it is possible to replace a lining of the oil pallet, a head of the block of cylinders, linings of inlet and final collectors, forward and back covers, epiploons of a cranked shaft.
Without engine removal also it is possible to remove such hinged units, as the pump of a cooling liquid, a starter, the generator, the distributor of ignition, inlet and final collectors, the fuel pump and the carburettor.
As the head of the block of cylinders can be removed and without engine removal repair клапанного the mechanism is possible.
Without removal it is possible to execute replacement or check of a condition of a gear belt газораспределительного the mechanism, gear wheels of a drive of a shaft газораспределительного the mechanism, the oil pump, consolidation of a forward cover of the engine.
In extreme cases when the necessary equipment is absent, without removal of the power unit it is possible to replace piston rings, pistons, rods and шатунные loose leaves, отхонинговать cylinders. However to perform these works without removal of the power unit it is not recommended, as careful clearing of some details and some spadework is required.
Engine major repairs
It is not always easy to come to a conclusion about expediency of major repairs of the engine as it is necessary to be based on variety of signs. The big run is not a sufficient indicator of necessity of carrying out of major repairs, at the same time small run does not exclude necessity of major repairs. Timeliness of carrying out of current (planned) maintenance service of the engine becomes the most important indicator, most likely. At timely replacement of oil and the air filter, performance of all other necessary works on service the engine is capable to serve reliably throughout many thousand kilometres of run. On the contrary, insufficient service can become the reason of sharp reduction of a resource of the engine. The raised expense of oil specifies in deterioration of piston rings or directing plugs of valves. It is necessary to be convinced that the reason
The raised expense of oil it is covered not in leaks, and only after that to do a conclusion about unfitness of piston rings and directing plugs.
To define volume of forthcoming works, measure a compression in cylinders of the engine or check up tightness of the chamber of combustion for what it is recommended to address to the skilled expert.
If at engine work the raised noise, knocks deterioration шатунных or radical loose leaves of bearings can be their plausible reason is listened.
Turn out the regular gauge of the index of pressure of oil and measure pressure of oil by a manometre, compare the received value with specified in a management. If pressure low deterioration of radical bearings of a cranked shaft or deterioration of the oil pump can be the reason.
Capacity loss, "failures" at the engine work, the raised noise from газораспределительного the mechanism, specify increase in the expense of fuel in necessity of carrying out of major repairs, especially if all these factors are shown simultaneously. If performance of all adjustments does not lead to improvement the most expedient means of elimination of the specified malfunctions is repair.
Major repairs consist in restoration of details of the engine to a condition specified in engineering specifications for the new engine. At major repairs carrying out piston rings are replaced, walls of cylinders are chiseled till next repair size (or хонингуются).
After repair of cylinders installation of new pistons is required also. Шатунные and radical loose leaves also are subject to replacement, in need of a neck of a cranked shaft follows прошлифовать for restoration of necessary backlashes with loose leaves шатунных and radical bearings. As a rule, клапанный the mechanism is not replaced, as its condition at the moment of repair quite satisfactory. During engine major repairs repair of the carburettor, the distributor of ignition, a starter and the generator also is carried out. As a result after qualitatively spent repair the engine should possess qualities of almost new unit and smoothly serve long time.
Before the beginning of major repairs of the engine familiarise with the description of corresponding repair procedures approximately to estimate forthcoming amount of works and requirements to them. Major repairs are simple, however demand the big expenses of time. Roughly it is required not less than two weeks, especially if for repair and restoration of details (polishing, расточки) it is necessary to address in a specialised workshop. Check up presence of spare parts and in advance take care of acquisition of necessary special tools and the equipment.
Almost all works can be executed by means of a standard tooling though exact measuring devices will be necessary for check and definition of suitability of those or other details. Frequently check of a condition of details carry out in specialised workshops in which also receive recommendations about replacement or restoration of details.
To address in specialised workshops and at servicing deport, to solve, which operations on service and repair will be carried out in workshops, follows after full dismantling of the engine and check of all details, especially the block of cylinders.
As a condition of the block of cylinders – the defining factor for decision-making on its further repair or purchase of the new or restored block of cylinders to buy spare parts or to perform operations on machining of details follows only after careful check of its technical condition. Make it a rule that the true price of repair is time then it is not necessary to pay for installation of the worn out or repair details.
In summary we will notice that assemblage of any units should be carried out very carefully, in a pure premise to avoid the further refusals of the repaired engine.
Major repairs двигатея: alternatives
At independent performance of major repairs various variants are possible. The decision on replacement of the block of cylinders, shatunno-piston group and a cranked shaft depends on variety of factors, from which most important – a condition of the block of cylinders. Other reasons are repair cost, possibility of reception of access to the equipment of workshops of car-care centre, presence of spare parts, time for work and corresponding experience.
Some of variants of performance of major repairs are more low resulted.
Acquisition of separate spare parts.
If inspection shows that the block of cylinders and the majority of details are in a satisfactory condition and can be used further purchase of separate spare parts becomes the most expedient from the economic point of view. The block of cylinders, shatunno-piston group and a cranked shaft should be surveyed carefully. Even if insignificant deterioration of the block of cylinders is found out, cylinders are subject obligatory хонингованию.
Cranked shaft of a full complete set.
This repair complete set includes перешлифованный a cranked shaft and a set of the pistons picked up for the size and rods. Pistons are already established on rods. The complete set also includes a set of piston rings, radical and шатунных loose leaves. These complete sets usually include pistons both standard, and all repair sizes.
The block of cylinders of an incomplete complete set.
The block of cylinders of an incomplete complete set consists of the block of cylinders with established krivoshipno-shatunnym the mechanism and piston group. Into the complete set enter new radical and шатунные loose leaves, backlashes in them correspond to norm. On the complete set mount available camshaft, клапанный the mechanism, a head of the block of cylinders and hinged units. Expenses for machining are minimum or are not required absolutely.
The block of cylinders of a full complete set.
The block of cylinders of a full complete set contains all complete set of the block of cylinders of an incomplete complete set, and also the oil pump, the oil pallet, a head of the block of cylinders, a cover of the case of bearings of a camshaft, a camshaft, клапанный the mechanism, gear wheels of a drive of a camshaft, a gear belt and belt covers. All bearings, consolidations and linings new. On the complete set establish only inlet and final collectors, hinged units.
Carefully think over, what of variants most of all approaches you. Before purchase of details consult at servicing deport of cars, with sellers of spare parts.